WHAT IS EQUIVALENCE PARTITIONING?
Concepts: Equivalence partitioning is a method for deriving test cases. In this method, classes of input conditions called equivalence classes are
identified such that each member of the class causes the same kind of
processing and output to occur. In this method, the tester identifies various equivalence classes for partitioning. A class is a set of input conditions that are is likely to be handled the same way by the system. If the system were to handle one case in the class erroneously, it would handle all cases erroneously.
WHY LEARN EQUIVALENCE PARTITIONING?
Equivalence partitioning drastically cuts down the number of test cases required to test a system reasonably. It is an attempt to get a good 'hit rate', to find the most errors with the smallest number of test cases.
DESIGNING TEST CASES USING EQUIVALENCE PARTITIONING
To use equivalence partitioning, you will need to perform two steps
# Identify the equivalence classes
# Design test cases
STEP 1: IDENTIFY EQUIVALENCE CLASSES Take each input condition described in the specification and derive at least two equivalence classes for it. One class represents the set of cases which satisfy the condition (the valid class) and one represents cases which do not (the invalid class ) Following are some general guidelines for identifying equivalence classes: a) If the requirements state that a numeric value is input to the system and must be within a range of values, identify one valid class inputs which are within the valid range and two invalid equivalence classes inputs which are too low and inputs which are too high. For example, if an item in inventory can have a quantity of - 9999 to + 9999, identify the following classes:
1. one valid class: (QTY is greater than or equal to -9999 and is less than or equal to 9999). This is written as (- 9999 < = QTY < = 9999)
2. the invalid class (QTY is less than -9999), also written as (QTY < -9999)
3. the invalid class (QTY is greater than 9999) , also written as (QTY >9999) b) If the requirements state that the number of items input by the system at some point must lie within a certain range, specify one valid class where the number of inputs is within the valid range, one invalid class where there are too few inputs and one invalid class where there are, too many inputs.